The metals and alloys with which the jeweler works can be divided into two groups by color:

1) non-ferrous - pure gold, non-ferrous gold alloys, non-ferrous non-precious alloys;

2) white - pure silver, silver alloys, white gold, platinum, platinum metals, and their alloys, white base alloys.

At the state level, the content of precious metals in jewelry is determined by assay supervision inspections. The fact that the product has passed the appropriate examination is confirmed by the assay stamp.

There are several methods for determining samples of precious metals and their alloys. These include a quick check with a dash on an assay stone, cupping in a muffle furnace, chemical, and analytical methods. The simplest form is drip, which applies an acid solution (assay reagent) to the test product. Most often, this method is used to check jewelry in pawnshops.

Visual inspection

Carefully examine the decoration with a magnifying glass. The gold sample or its weight in carats must be indicated. Gold products have a special marking confirming the authenticity of the jewelry. However, nowadays, scammers have learned to put a brand on fakes, so this method cannot guarantee the authenticity of the product 100%.

Sound test

An effortless authentication check. It is necessary to take the jewel and throw it on a complex and smooth surface. Real gold sounds clean and resonant, resembling crystal in sound.

Checking with vinegar.

 Into a glass and lower the product for 3-5 minutes. Fake jewelry will quickly acquire a dull greenish tint. Real high-grade metal will not react to vinegar in any way.

Magnetic test

Take a real strong magnet that is in good contact with metal. Swipe the interest over the decoration and watch if it will attract. If the product is still attractive, you can be entirely sure that you have a fake in your hands. Genuine gold will never come into contact with a magnet.

Application of nitric acid

A fake from an actual precious metal can be determined with the help of nitric acid. The decoration will be stirred into clean metal dishes. Then, using a pipette, you need to gently drip nitric acid. Real gold will not change its color. Gilding acquires a milky hue, ordinary metal becomes greenish. It should be noted that the test should be carried out on an inconspicuous part of the product: on the inside, on fasteners, etc.

Checking with iodine

As in the previous version, apply one drop of iodine to the inside of the jewelry. The fake will quickly change its color to black or green, while the real gold will remain unchanged.

Lapis pencil test

Lapis pencil is a medical preparation containing silver nitrate in its composition. Pre-moisten the product in water and draw a small strip. The result manifests itself instantly - fake "gold" immediately begins to oxidize and darken.

Jewelers who identify fakes visually and with the help of special devices will always help assess the quality of gold jewelry. Such verification is usually paid. But you will be sure that you are holding a jewel in your hands and not a fake.

We determine the gilding.

Gilding is a thin layer of pure gold, which is applied to the surface of the product. The technique of gilding jewelry is quite simple: gold is sprayed or rolled onto the substrate. Medical steel, brass, copper, or silver can be used as the base metal. The thickness of the gold layer is not regulated. However, the thicker the precious metal layer, the more time your favorite chains, earrings, or rings will serve their owner. As a rule, gilding does not have any specific marking. For example, if the coating is applied to a silver substrate, its stamp will be corresponding to silver.

It is pretty tricky to distinguish gold from gilding without unique expertise. Still, several ways will help determine a fake.

There should be no scuffs, stains, and scratches on its surface. If such defects were found during the inspection, then such a decoration is definitely not worth buying. Authentic gold jewelry has a bright shine and a perfectly smooth plain surface.

You can slightly scrape the jewel on an inconspicuous area. The gold dusting will recede slightly, while the gold will remain unchanged. Gilding also gradually comes off when wearing jewelry, especially on the edges of jewelry. Therefore, if the upper coating has worn off or changed its color, you can be sure that you have a gilded product in front of you.

There is also a reasonably simple way to do a home check. It is necessary to heat the product strongly, for example, over the stove burner, and then quickly lower it into cold water. High-grade gold will not change its color, but streaks may appear on gilded metal.

Gilding is also checked with silver nitrate, which is sold in any pharmacy. Treat the wetted surface of the product with a small amount of nitrate. Gilding will become dark and cloudy, while gold will not react with it.

How to avoid fraud?

You can ask the seller in the salon to check the jewelry for authenticity. Many large stores have unique solutions and tools to determine the quality of precious metals.

Suppose you have already bought a piece of jewelry and you have suspicions about its authenticity. In that case, it is better to immediately contact a pawnshop or a qualified jeweler. Specialists will quickly and for little money determine the metal from which the jewel is made.