Tiaras in the form of laurel wreaths and bunches of ears, gold hoops, necklaces made of precious stones, earrings with massive pear-shaped pendants were mandatory jewelry of the Napoleonic era for royal receptions. Persons close to the emperor were required to wear tiaras (crowns) with laurel leaf motifs, decorated with diamonds and ruby "berries," or tiaras of other exquisite shapes (often with pendants of pear-shaped pearls), protruding at the central point above the forehead and tapering to the edges. Tiaras were necessary for official receptions and lavish celebrations. They have always served as a symbol of luxury, prosperity, and style.
An alternative to the tiara was a bandeau made of stones worn over the forehead or with a suitable comb. A necessary addition to the ceremonial costumes were parures (sets of jewelry). At the beginning of the 19th century, diamonds, rubies, emeralds, aquamarines, yellow and pink topazes, amethysts, and garnets were used for their manufacture. An exceptionally luxurious headdress was made for the coronation of Empress Josephine, the first wife of Napoleon 1. The parure was decorated with 82 authentic antique cameos and many pearls taken from the state collection. The parure of the Queen of Naples, Napoleon's younger sister, was also decorated with cameos carved on agate. This parure included a necklace, a brooch, a pair of earrings, three hairpins, two pendants, and six pendants. Luxury and even pomposity amaze Napoleon's relatives' outfits and persons close to him.
The deep cleavage of formal and ball gowns needed to be decorated with wide necklaces that somewhat rested on the shoulders than wrapped around the neck. They consisted of diamonds and precious colored stones in exquisite frames connected by chains.
In the middle of the 19th century, tiaras made of gold with gems of Gothic architectural design were made for royal receptions. By the end of this period, it was customary to wear tiaras with stars studded with diamonds at royal receptions. The court ladies complement their hairstyles with unique hair ornaments - hairpins and plumes, brooches, necklaces, and pearl threads. Plumes and hairpins were decorated with flowers, leaves, berries, and bunches of grapes.
Diamond brooches in the shape of branches and large corsage ornaments in the form of bouquets were worn on ceremonial dresses by members of royal families. Often these ornaments were complemented by leaves with green enamel, cascades of diamonds, or pearls.
By the end of the first half of the 19th century, Queen Victoria became the trendsetter in the British Empire. Her jewelry was carefully copied at court. It was customary to wear a lot of jewelry at royal receptions.
In the same years in France, Louis Napoleon revived the craving for luxury, which had died out under the influence of Louis Philippe. Eugenie, the wife of the new Napoleon, was a trendsetter in both clothing and jewelry. She preferred the style of the 18th century, considering Marie Antoinette to be a role model. With the light hand of Eugenie, crinolines returned to fashion, some of the royal jewels were remade by her order. Her favorite stones were emeralds, so they were in the most significant demand after diamonds in France.
In the 1890s, the court was swept by the fashion for tiaras in the spirit of the Russian imperial crown. They resembled kokoshniks and consisted of a graduated row of vertically lanceolate leaves by design.
Tiaras and hair ornaments in the Art Nouveau style for royal receptions were made, as a rule, from unusual materials, for example, using enamel. Their shapes were dictated by a fantasy approach to nature characteristic of this style. Evening dresses were decorated in abundance with diamond butterflies, beetles, swallows, stars, and bows.
But such decorations were used mainly for informal receptions.
At the end of the 19th century, a necklace in "collar" was mandatory for every lady from a royal family. Evening necklaces of this shape consisted of 11-12 rows of natural pearls with a central element of gold and diamonds. The fashion for "collars" was introduced by Alexandra, Princess of Wales. She often wore a pearl "collar" with a low-cut dress. Another innovation of the 1890s was long chains - sautoirs made of gold with pearls, diamonds, or other colored stones, often with a tassel at the end. Princess Alexandra loved to wear long pearl sautoirs around her waist or pinned to her bodice with a brooch.
With pearl "collars" at court receptions, it was customary to wear bracelets made of several rows of pearls with a diamond clasp.
With the First World War outbreak, official receptions and lavish balls ceased. The jewelry was locked in safes or sold to ensure the survival of its owners. And some, such as in Russia, were confiscated and transferred to museums.
Since then, the manufacture of unique jewelry for royal and royal receptions has almost ended. To this day, members of royal families usually wear products made in the 19th and early 20th centuries to official receptions. Jewelry with large diamonds remains mandatory for ceremonial receptions. Necklaces made of natural pearls and jewelry with unique stones (sapphires, emeralds, and rubies) remain favorite in royal families.